Located in the northeastern part of China, Heilongjiang is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west.
It also shares a China–Russia border with Russia to the north and east.
The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.
The province takes its name from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia.
Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe County along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).
Heilongjiang is China's largest agricultural base, as well as an important industrial area mainly based on oil, timber, coal and machinery manufacturing.
Heilongjiang is a land of varied topography. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khingan Range and Lesser Khingan Range.
The highest peak is Mount Datudingzi at 1,690 metres (5,540 ft), located on the border with Jilin province.
The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.
A humid continental climate predominates in the province, though areas in the far north are subarctic.
Winters are long and bitter, with an average of −31 to −15 °C in January, and summers are short and warm with an average of 18 to 23 °C in July.
The average annual rainfall is 400 to 700 millimetres, concentrated heavily in summer.
Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year, and in the spring, the Songnen Plain and the Sanpingjiang Plain provide abundant sources of wind energy.
A road and highway proposal was accepted in 2006; the project plans to develop 38,000 kilometres of new roads and expand Heilongjiang’s total road network to 2.3 million kilometres.
There are 60 rail lines of around 5,300 kilometres including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge.
The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway, completed in 2012, stretches from Harbin, Heilongjiang’s capital, to Dalian in Liaoning province via Changchun and Shenyang comprising 23 stops.
It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.
Harbin International Airport is capable of handling six million passengers every year and connects to over 70 domestic and international cities.
Heilongjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one prefecture.
The thirteen prefecture-level divisions of Heilongjiang are subdivided into 128 county-level divisions (65 districts, 19 county-level cities, 43 counties, and one autonomous county).
Those are in turn divided into 1,284 township-level divisions (473 towns, 400 townships, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).
The agriculture of Heilongjiang, heavily defined by its cold climate, is based upon crops such as soybeans, maize, wheat and potatoes. Commercial crops grown include beets, flax, and sunflowers.
Heilongjiang is also an important source of lumber for China. Forests are mostly to be found in the Greater Khingan Mountains and Lesser Khingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.
Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horses and cattle; the province has the largest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.
Petroleum is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang.
26. 黑龙江还拥有巨大的风力发电潜力，平均风能密度为每平方米200瓦。Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with an average wind energy density of 200 watts per square metre.
Heilongjiang is part of northeast China, the country's traditional industrial base. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russia.
Since a wave of privatization led to the closure of uncompetitive factories in the 1990s, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China campaign to deal with this problem, promoting the private sectors as the preferred method of economic reform.
Its GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003 to 2007.
The value of the private economy reached RMB234 billion in 2006 and accounted for 37.6 percent of the GDP. In that year, the tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion.
Private enterprises in Heilongjiang lead the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge.
The province's three major private enterprises each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue in 2007.
In line with the central government’s policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang has also restructured its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest and timber processing.
In 2013, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 260.87 billion Chinese yuan, with an annual growth rate of 12.2%.
Its per capita GDP was 21,640 yuan (US$3,168). Its primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 108.9 billion yuan, 436.6 billion yuan, and 285.5 billion yuan, respectively.
The per capita disposable income of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year.
The majority of Heilongjiang's population is Han Chinese, while other ethnic minorities include the Manchus, Koreans, Mongols, Hui, Xibe, and Hezhen.
Most of Heilongjiang's residents are either non-religious or practice Chinese folk religions, including Taoism.
39. 许多满族人信奉满族萨满教。在该省汉传佛教和藏传佛教也有很大影响。Manchu shamanism is practiced by many Manchu people. Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have an important presence in the province.
The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2,000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event.
Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China.
In recent years, this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties.
Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.
The central part of Liaoning consists of a basin drained by rivers such as the Liao, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and low-lying.
Liaoning has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.
Liaoning has the largest provincial economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.20 trillion yuan (ca. US$348 billion), making it the 7th largest in China (out of 31 provinces).
Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth. Economic growth has since slowed down, with the economy expanding 3% in 2015 and contracting 1.3% in the first quarter of 2016.
On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation.
Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil.
The cities of Dalian, Dandong and Yingkou have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China. Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level.